Emission measurements conducted by Institute of Transport Economics in Norway, in collaboration with VTT in Finland, shows that new Euro 6 cars with diesel engines are struggling with too high NOx emissions in real traffic. After Volkswagen has admitted cheating in emission tests in the United States by making its cars appear more environmentally friendly than they are, this study is no less relevant for a European context.
From 2015 EURO 6 emission standards where introduced for cars and similar EURO VI requirements for heavy vehicles. These requirements are including NOx and particulate matter from new cars.
Since 2011, TØI and VTT have conducted emission measurements of 12 heavy vehicles with Euro VI engines, and seven Euro 6 diesel cars. In addition, several petrol vehicles (Euro 5 and 6) and diesel vehicles (Euro 5) are measured. All vehicles were tested in laboratory under conditions that as far as possible should correspond to the actual use of the vehicles.
These measurements show that Euro 6 type approved private cars with diesel engines have 4-20 times higher emission of NOx in city traffic and during cold weather than the type approval limit value (0,08 g/km). The average emission of NOx from the tested Euro 6
In a crash at just 30 miles per hour (48.3 kilometers per hour), an unrestrained passenger is thrown forward with a force 30 to 60 times their body weight. Learn more about crash dynamics. Seatbelts are designed to hold you into the car and spread the destructive force of the impact over the more resilient parts of your body, increasing your chances of avoiding death or serious injury in a crash by up to 50 percent. Learn more about seatbelts.
There are three basic types of child car seats, each designed for different ages (and sizes) of children:
- Rear-facing infant seats and convertible seats
- Forward-facing car seats
- Booster seats and backless boosters
Learn more about types of car seats. Rear-facing infant seats are generally suitable for babies up to 22 pounds (about 10 kilograms), roughly from birth to 12 months. Learn more about rear-facing car seats. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), all children ages 12 and under should ride in the back seat. Learn more about car seat safety. Rear-facing car seats provide greater protection for the baby’s head, neck and spine than forward-facing seats. Learn more about rear-facing car seats. Types of car seat harness styles:
- The three-point harness has straps
The word “hydraulics” originates from the Greek word ‘hydraulikos’ which in turn originates from hydor which means water and aulos meaning pipe. At a very basic level, hydraulics is the liquid version of pneumatics. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids.
Hydraulic technology is a new technology which is being used in every industry nowadays. The plant contractors, farmers, builders, developers, civil engineers and other professional need this related equipment in their day to day work. However it is very important to ensure that the equipment is being checked properly without using. Safety measures should be taken properly as prevention is better than cure. You need a company who follows the values like dedication, integration and quality. When you search over internet you can get many options but the one that you need is best for you. The company which is old in the market will show the best outcome.They make sure that they provide you with the best service in the market as they have their reputation at stake.
One of the experts operating since 1889 whose aim is to serve customer’s needs, to achieve that they have
Long-term projects take time and money. Unfortunately, time isn’t our friend when it comes to building a quality ride that has to serve double duty as the family transport during the week and hit up weekend cruises and car shows. When he picked up his new ’02 Dodge
Ram 1500 quad cab, Rigo Rodriguez had plenty of ideas and couldn’t wait to get started making them reality. Of course, the first thing on his agenda was to get the truck down to an acceptable level.
One of the challenges with getting a full-size Dodge Ram truck down low is to make the front suspension work properly on the road, so Rigo started with help from his friend Scott Roberts. Scott did a 2-inch Z-notch, which changed the telemetry of the overall drive train, even with the planned air suspension pieces. To keep the drive train properly aligned, as well as provide some extra ground clearance when the Dodge Ram truck is down low, the transmission cross member was also raised to help put things back in the right perspective.
Before the rear setup could be fabricated, the factory fuel tank had to be relocated to inside the bed area where a new bed
When preparing RV’s on the Gold Coast for the upcoming season, there are a number of factors you need to keep in mind. Depending on how you stored your RV during the winter, you may have more work to do. A lot of people use their vehicle as storage during the off season so it will have to be cleared out. When people start getting their RVs ready throughout Brisbane, you know it’s nearly time to get out on the road again. Here are some things you should do to ensure that your RV is ready to go after the winter period.
Check the exterior
One of the most common problems with RVs after a winter of storage is leaks. You should check the roof and all of the lining round the windows, air conditioner, vents and the doors to ensure there is no damage. Even a small crack can lead to disastrous problems.
Appliances are clean and in working order
Make sure that all of the appliances are clean and in working order. Make sure there are no signs of nests, webs or insects. Clean everything with household products to ensure that everything is sterile and safe to use.
Well If you have ever needed a towing service or locked your keys inside your car, Motor Club Of America also known as MCA is a company that you need to know about.
Winter storms and blizzards will be coming very soon and as you already know, cars do what they want regardless of whether it’s winter time or summer.
Commuting back and forth in the winter time can be extremely hard on any vehicle. You must protect yourself and make sure that you are not left stranded and freezing in the cold because for some unknown reason, your car decided to break down.
Maybe you have a trusted friend that would come to your rescue at 4:00 a.m. in the morning, but personally, I just don’t have it like that and then again, maybe you’re not rolling around in a hoopty and think that you have no worries.
Don’t fool yourself into thinking that because you’re driving a newer vehicle that your car would never stall on you.
Even if your car haven’t stopped on you yet, there’s many possibilities of why it would other then a major mechanical problem such as run out of gas, a bad battery or even something as
What is the best way to maintain the beauty and elegance of your most prized possession; your car? Many car owners would agree that regular cleaning and upkeep is the only route to maintain a sparkling and shiny vehicle, no matter what type of car it is.
Enjoy Your Alloy Wheels
Frequently, car owners will spend their weekends cleaning away the grime and dust that has gathered on their car.Cleanliness and timely alloy wheel repair are essential factors for enjoying a smooth drive in your elegant car.
However, many car owners will neglect the wheels of their car. The wheels of a car can quickly succumb to brakedust, road salt, sticky tar and other issues. Many of them will only sparkle for a short time, when they are new. It can also be the most challenging part of the car to clean.
Manufacturers and owners are quickly shiftingfrom sturdy and heavy steel base over to elegant looking alloy wheels.These are come in a myriad of different colors. You can also polish it to enhance their overall appearance of the vehicle. However, this appearance can be short-lived if you are not careful; the moment the
Online drivers ed has reshaped the value of driving institution. It’s a solution to the changes that are developing among the technology of the world. Yes, at the fingertips of the person, things are already grasped. Now you don’t have to wait for what you wanted as the internet has provided a higher egress to the matter of the time.
Driving education has been driven from the textbooks, physical school rooms, and plenty of papers to the evolution of cyber school rooms, eBooks, and scrap less papers. It’s a brand new approach of learning that’s not isolated in school alone, however conjointly in alternative areas of education or the other among the grasp of imagination with the online Joshua’s law.
With the enjoyment of driver ed online, what are the benefits that one will get pleasure from and greatly place into action?
Forget Travelling: The most effective of on-line education is that the elimination of travelling. Yes, for many oldsters, it’d be a good trouble to drive their children to the school and find them once more. Well, the child cannot drive around by himself as a result of he doesn’t have a permit or he doesn’t nonetheless have the information regarding the
Everybody tries to drive safely, but sometimes, due to the carelessness of the driver, accidents do happen causing damage to the vehicles as well as individuals. Some automobiles get crash in the collision to such a level that it becomes impossible to bring them back on to the road, whereas others can be repaired by the professionals of the best auto body shop in Los Angeles.
Los Angeles is a beautiful place in Southern California having countless technicians providing excellent vehicle repair services. You would definitely not find any difficulty in locating an auto body shop near Los Angeles offering gamut of services like accident repair, frame straightening, painting, unibody repair, and many more. The professionals use modern tools and techniques to deliver the best repair services to the customers.
Today, many vehicle body shop providers are employing environment friendly services as they are concerned about the nature and wanted to make sure that the planet remains habitable for generations to come. They have started using eco friendly paints for the vehicles. Conventionally, the company used to use solvent borne paint in vehicle repair, which
Compact car shoppers may not be too happy when their budget-friendly car requires a $40 — or more — oil change. Automakers including Honda and Toyota are almost exclusively switching from well-known 5W-30 and 10W-30 oils to low-friction, and pricier, 0W-20 engine oils. The slippery low-friction oils helps squeeze every last bit of fuel economy out of the engine, but their synthetic and synthetic blend man-made origins raise the cost of routine maintenance.
Cars.com received its first taste of 0W-20 oil — not literally, the car was serviced at a dealership — when the 2013 Subaru BRZ long-term tester’s first oil change totaled $76 with full-synthetic 0W-20 oil. The pricey oil isn’t just for sports coupes like the BRZ. Our other long-term tester, a 2013 Honda Civic, is a best-selling car every month and requires the exotic-sounding 0W-20 oil.
Changing a 2013 Honda Civic’s oil is roughly a $40 service with the recommended blended synthetic 0W-20, which is much easier to swallow than the $76 for our BRZ that uses full-synthetic oil and more of it at $7.69 per quart. Most owners are probably more familiar with $20 or $30 oil changes from express-oil-change service centers.
Vehicle maintenance schedules vary on how often the air filter should be changed. On most Chevrolet engines, for example, the recommended interval is every 45,000 miles, but Ford says it should be done every 30,000 miles on many of its engines. Hyundai also says every 30,000 miles but shortens it to 15,000 for “severe” driving conditions, which includes heavy traffic in hot weather and frequent driving on unpaved roads or dusty conditions.
You might be able to tell by looking when a filter needs replacing, such as finding black areas on the section through which outside air enters. Air filters on most engines are fairly easy to access, and you can check the location in your owner’s manual if you need help.
If you can’t tell by looking, but it’s been more than three years or 30,000 miles, you probably should get a new one (especially if you can save money by doing it yourself). However, you should be leery if every time you get an oil change the repair shop says you also need a new air filter. We would expect most drivers can go more than a year, at least, and probably more than
Yes, though how often this service should be performed varies by manufacturer and vehicle, and it’s open to debate.
The manufacturer’s maintenance schedule for many automatic transmissions doesn’t call for fresh fluid until 100,000 miles or, with some Ford transmissions, even 150,000 miles. A lot of mechanics say that is too long and it should be done at least every 50,000 miles. Manual transmissions may be on a different schedule, so it’s best to consult the maintenance schedule in the owner’s manual.
Like other vital automotive fluids, transmission fluid deteriorates over time. Hard use – such as frequent stop-and-go city driving, hauling heavy loads, trailer towing – will accelerate the deterioration. That kind of driving raises the operating temperature of the transmission, and heat puts more strain on the transmission and the fluid, which helps facilitate gear shifts, cools the transmission and lubricates moving parts.
If you do a lot of driving under high-stress conditions, you should check the transmission level more often and have a repair shop check the condition of the fluid. Transmission fluid often is red but can come in other colors, and as it deteriorates it tends to turn darker. It
Cars get old and if you’re part of the vast majority of Americans who own a set of wheels at least 11 years old, we’re pretty sure those front headlights could use a makeover. Clean headlights not only make your vehicle look like new, but they allow for safe and unobstructed travel by clearly illuminating the road ahead.
Haze, fog, smear, whatever you want to call it, there are easy ways to get rid of that plastic oxidation that fogs up your vehicle’s headlights after years and miles of driving.
There are numerous headlight restoration kits available for sale at auto parts and home improvement stores. For this story, we tested two different kits: a $25 kit from Mequiar’s and one that cost $10 from Turtle Wax. Both kits come with a cleaning-clarifying compound, wet sanding pads and a protectant sealer solution. What do you get for $15 more? The more-advanced Meguiar’s kit provides a clean microfiber detailing cloth, an ergonomic hand grip for the wet sanding pads and a polishing buffing ball that mounts to a drill. The cheaper Turtle Wax kit came with two solutions and a numbered set of sanding pads.
While it may seem like a mundane task, inflating tires is much more crucial to your car than you may think, and it results in a safer and more economical experience on the road. Your vehicle’s handling also will be greatly improved as the larger a tire’s inflated footprint, the more responsive and comfier the ride balance will be.
Because it’s National Tire Safety Week, it’s the perfect time to check your car’s tires.
To find your tires’ proper inflation level, look for a sticker on the driver-side doorjamb. It displays the vehicle weight restriction and tire information. The info is also found in the maintenance or car-care section of your vehicle’s owner’s manual.
Don’t refer to the sidewall markings on your tires, which in part specify the maximum tire pressure — not the recommended pressure.
Unless your tire is visibly flat, don’t judge tire inflation just by looking at it; you have to use a tire pressure gauge to get the correct pounds per square inch reading. There are three types of tire-pressure gauges: digital, internal slide and dial. Prices range from $5 for a basic gauge to more
Replacing power-steering fluid generally is not listed among the regular maintenance items that should be performed, so on most vehicles replacing it is at the owner’s discretion.
When you take your car in for routine service you may hear an urgent pitch for having your power-steering pump flushed and filled with fresh fluid because the current fluid has turned dark. Bear in mind that engine oil and transmission fluid also become darker after a while, so a deeper shade of red doesn’t mean the power-steering fluid is bad. Before you jump at paying for this service, see what your owner’s manual or maintenance schedule says. You probably won’t find mention of changing the fluid.
You should check the power-steering fluid reservoir monthly to make sure it has the proper amount and that the power-steering system isn’t leaking. Reservoirs on many vehicles are the see-through plastic type, so you don’t even have to remove a cap to check the level. Consult your owner’s manual for the location of the reservoir in the engine compartment for help. You also should check the manual for the type of power-steering fluid that is required. The manufacturer may call for a
If your car drifts to one side and you have to turn the steering wheel away from the center position to drive straight, that is a good indication that your wheels are out of alignment. Perhaps it is the result of hitting a deep pothole or scoring a direct hit on a curb while parking.
Before you head off to a repair shop to have your wheels aligned, a job that typically costs about $60 to $100 for most vehicles, it would be a good idea to check your tire pressure. Underinflated tires can also cause a vehicle to pull to one side, so eliminate that possibility first.
You might also want to inspect your tires to see if there is uneven wear, such as the tread being worn off along one edge, another sign of an alignment issue. However, it can be hard to separate normal from excessive wear, so unless you’re well trained in “tireology” you shouldn’t jump to conclusions.
Vibrations in your wheels are different from alignment problems. Vibrations are probably caused by wheels being out of balance or bent (potholes can do that) or because suspension parts are worn, and getting
We would expect at least 50,000 miles from the tires that come with any new vehicle, but tire life depends on so many factors that it’s impossible to give anything other than broad guidelines.
Among the factors are the quality of the tire, the treadwear rating, whether it is a performance summer tire or an all-season tire, the type of vehicle it is mounted on and how it is driven. Performance tires may grip like leeches on dry pavement, but they tend to wear out faster than tires with less rolling resistance. If you drive your vehicle like you just stole it that also will wear tires faster. The Tires 101 information in the Cars.com Advice section, found here, will help you sort out the different types of tires and which is best for your driving style.
Driving for extended periods on underinflated tires shortens their lifespan, as will driving a vehicle whose wheels are out of alignment. If you never or seldom have your tires rotated, that also can accelerate wear, especially the tires mounted in front on a front-wheel-drive vehicle. They not only carry most of the vehicle’s weight but also carry most of